SPWLA Kuwait 2008/2009

   June - 2009

Advanced Carbonate Interpretation Using Neutron Capture Spectroscopy and Magnetic Resonance Data

Djisan Kho (Senior Petrophysicist - Schlumberger)

Abstract: Evaluation of porosity and lithology has always been done through a combination of density, photoelectric factor (PEF), neutron, gamma ray, and sonic measurements. None of these gives porosity or lithology directly. Therefore, common practice includes building petrophysical models to extract these reservoir properties. Geoscientists involved in petrophysical analysis using multi mineral solvers are aware of the difficulty and the uncertainty of the process; for example, changing a fluid property in the model will change the lithology as well as the porosity. The logs themselves are also known to have their own measurement uncertainties. The density log, for example, is affected by bad hole, lithology, barite, and light hydrocarbons. The neutron log is affected by lithology, fluid hydrogen index, and the borehole properties (temperature, pressure, hole size, stand-off, mud cake, mud weight, etc.). The interpretation is also complicated by the fact that different neutron tools from different logging companies have different sensitivities to lithology. Sonic log data is also used for interpretation even though it is affected by fractures, vuggy porosity, anisotropy, etc. The PEF curve is commonly used as an additional tool to solve for the lithology. However, if the mud contains barite the measurement becomes unusable.

Dolomite and solid bitumen quantification has been the challenging issues in carbonate evaluation. The dolomite diagenesis involves the recrystallization which makes the dolomite less susceptible to porosity reduction caused by overburden pressure. This unique characteristic of the crystallized dolomite makes it as an important reservoir rock especially in deep carbonate reservoirs. On the hand, the presence of solid bitumen is always associated with poor reservoir quality. Also, the physical properties of the solid bitumen cause it to appear as hydrocarbon. If not corrected, the formation evaluation result will give incorrect porosity and water saturation computation.

New development in neutron capture spectroscopy tool provides significant data to quantify the mineralogy in carbonate, especially the dolomite content. Combination of the spectroscopy data and magnetic resonance data can be used to identify and correct the solid bitumen effects. Real examples from deep carbonate reservoir in northern Kuwait fields and the validation against core data will be presented.


About the presenter:

Djisan Kho is a formation evaluation technical advisor in the Schlumberger–KOC North Kuwait Jurassic Gas Development Project in KOC Gas Development Group. He received his engineering degree from Bandung Institute of Technology and joined Schlumberger as wireline field engineer in 1994. He was assigned in different countries in the Far East and the Middle East of Asia, before attending Schlumberger Log Analyst Training in Houston in 2000. He has held several positions including marketing staff, senior petrophysicist, and technical team leader. He was the project manager of Schlumberger Log Processing Project involved in re-processing and interpretation of more than 9,000 wells in Saudi Aramco before moving to Kuwait.

   May - 2009

President Speach

"Good evening,
First I would like to thank you all for attending the seventh SPWLA event of this session.
I would like also to thank Baker Huges for sponsoring this event.
This will not be our final event as we did cancel an event on March which we will substitute by holding an event next month.
Tonight's event is a special one as we will be holding the election for next year office bearers.
As you all know we have four officers position President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer. Please vote by ticking the box beside the name of the candidate you are voting for.
We will collect these before the presentation and announce the results after questions session.
Since last year we have came a long distance.
We have currently almost doubled the number of our members to 167 from the last years figure of about 80.
We have been registered officially with Kuwait Engineering Society.
We have been able of holding an event each month despite the economic crisis put on us. In league of best performing societies in the Middle East, according to SPWLA regional director, we are setting an example for other chapters.
This could have not been achieved without our officers, board members and member's commitment to support SPWLA Kuwait.
For next session which will start next Oct, we are considering hosting a tropical conference here in Kuwait. We will start a website to enable members to get in touch with our latest activity and achievements.
At the end I extend my special thanks to the office bearers (Names) and all the board members for the year round hard work and support."


Technical meeting # 7 (2008/2009)
Thursday, May 21, 2009
Sponsor – INTEQ , A division of Baker Hughes Inc.
Location – Al-Manshar Rotana Hotel, Fahaheel, Kuwait
Mr. Raymond Chew (INTEQ-Regional Petrophysicist)

Characterization of Arab Formation Carbonates Utilizing Real-Time Formation Pressure and Mobility Data

We are pleased to announce that about 45 people attended the meeting of 21st May 2009 organized by the Kuwait Chapter of the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) - dedicated to fostering interest in Petrophysical matters and encouraging the exchange of experience within our local Petrophysical community. We now have about 170 registered Members of the Kuwait Local Chapter of the SPWLA.

At the beginning of the event, the president addressed the chapter and updated the chapter on the various achievements throughout the year as this was also the annual meeting. The president also put forth the board's idea of holding a topical conference in 2010 and this was very much welcomed by the members. At the end of his introductory speech he requested people to vote for the new office bearers. Then the speaker was introduced by the secretary of the society and following this the ballots were collected from the members prior to start of the presentations.

Mr. Raymond Chew is the Regional Petrophysicist at Baker Hughes in Middle East. He received a B.Sc in Petroleum Engineering from the University Technology of Malaysia. He started his career in the field of log analysis and petrophysics in 1991 with Petronas in Malaysia and moved to Baker Hughes in 1998. He worked as Log Analyst, Petrophysicist, Wellsite Consultant,Geoscience Manager and Geoscience Advisor in a variety of countries in Middle East and Asia Pacific.


Abstract of the Presentation:

Wireline logging formation testing tools have long been used in the Arabian Peninsula for open hole formation pressure testing.Presently, a large number of wells are being drilled horizontally as producers and injectors, and often even as multilateral wells. This aggravates or prevents the use of conventional wireline logging technology. Formation pressure data are required to monitor the efficiency of production and injection for pressure maintenance.

The Arab formation is a very prolific producing formation that consists of several members deposited in a carbonate shelf environment. Besides formation pressure, a representative permeability is an important element of the data acquisition. The Arab formation porosity and permeability are variable and dependant on original facies, mineralogy and diagenesis. Highly porous rock can have variable permeability dependant on a number of these factors.

Conventional logs can show zones to be porous and hydrocarbon filled. These zones can be difficult to produce or inject due the presence of viscous heavy oil and tar. Therefore complicating the geosteering of the horizontal producers and injections. It has been found that the best way of recognizing such zones reliably, is through the utilization of real-time formation pressure testing data while drilling, preferably combined with magnetic resonance data.

This paper will discuss examples of carbonate reservoir characterization utilizing formation pressure testing in combination with a full LWD logging suite. Operating procedures were specifically optimized to allow quality control of each acquired data set. An extensive, highly detailed, data set was transmitted to the end user, displayed real time both on the rig-site as well as in the operator data-center to properly place the horizontal well for its intended objective.

After the talk there was a question and answer session, following which the results of the election was declared by the treasurer and the following members were elected as the new office bearers for the 2009-2010 chapter year:

President: Mr. Salem Al-Sabea (KOC)
Vice President: Dr. Naim Al-Jabari (Schlumberger)
Secretary: Dr. Girija Shankar Padhy (Schlumberger)
Treasurer: Mr. Steven J.M. Allan (Baker Atlas)
At the end all members had dinner where the discussion continued.

   April - 2009

Technical meeting # 6 (2008/2009)
Monday 27th April 2009
Sponsor – Kuwait University
Location – KU, President Building- Conference Room Number 119
Mr. Khalid Ahmed, (Specialist Petrophysicist, KOC)

CORING UNCONSOLIDATED FORMATION – LOWER FARS: A CASE STUDY

We are pleased to announce that about 30 people attended the meeting of 27th April 2009 organized by the Kuwait Chapter of the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) - dedicated to fostering interest in Petrophysical matters and encouraging the exchange of experience within our local Petrophysical community. We now have over 115 registered Members of the Kuwait Local Chapter of the SPWLA.

Prior to the Talk, the speaker was introduced by the Secretary of the society.

Mr. Ahmed Khalid Ahmed is currently working as Specialist Petrophysicist with the Heavy Oil Group in KOC. He joined KOC in April 2002. Prior to KOC, he served Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd (ONGC), the premier Oil & Gas development company in India.

With over 28+ years of industry experience, Mr Ahmed has served in various capacity in both offshore and onshore. He has got three ONGC internal publications on Log Interpretation, Cement Evaluation and General Logging Practice. His technical papers have been published in various journals including ARMA &SPE. He is currently a member of AAPG, SPE & SPWLA. The evening's talk was based on the Coring practice developed entirely indigenously by Mr Ahmed for the unconsolidated sand of Lower Fars heavy oil deposition. Last month this was presented at MEOS 2009.


Abstract of the Presentation:

Lower Fars is a shallow unconsolidated sandstone reservoir with high inter-granular porosity filled with heavy oil in southern part of Ratqa Field in Kuwait. The shallow depth (500' to 800'), friable sand laminated with shale and high viscosity heavy oil in pores have made coring this sand quite challenging. Last recovered core with rubber-sleeved core barrel in the eighties was only up to 60%. We describe how thoughtful mix-up of technology, innovative techniques and proper coordination by aligning all concerned has helped in meeting the challenge of coring unconsolidated sand and it's processing. Using low invasive core fluid, shorter core length, Aluminum inner core barrel, separate core bit to cut major sand / shale, full core catcher system, vertical slabbing at well mouth and on-site freezing have improved core recovery in excess of 85%. While low-solid content coring fluid with a pH of 9 resulted in low mud invasion, reduced WOB, ROP and SPM ensured fewer washouts during coring. Low abrasive core head with clam shell full closure core catcher produced good recovery. Core barrel length was reduced from standard 30' to 10', which was slabbed to 3' size keeping barrel vertically at well mouth. At well site it was frozen vertically with foam on top to minimise lateral movement and transported in freezer. At Core Lab it was kept frozen with dry ice, slabbed and plugged with liquid N2. It is expected that the obtained core plugs from similarly cored 6 wells shall lead to meaningful Routine and Special Core Analysis, which was suspected in old cores. This would help in developing the depositional geological model in conjunction with the image logs.

After the talk the members had dinner where the discussion continued.

Girija Shankar Padhy
Secretary – SPWLA, Kuwait


Request Letter

The Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) Kuwait local chapter would like to hold April event in Kuwait University.

The Society of Petrophysicsts and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to the advancement of the science of petrophysics and formation evaluation, through well logging and other formation evaluation techniques and to the application of these techniques to the exploitation of gas, oil and other minerals. Founded in 1959, SPWLA provides information services to scientists in the petroleum and mineral industries, serves as a voice of shared interests in our profession, plays a major role in strengthening petrophysical education, and strives to increase the awareness of the role petrophysics has in the Oil and Gas Industry and the scientific community.


SPWLA local chapter aims are:

  • To create a society dedicated for Petrophysicists in Kuwait.
  • Promote education and technology in the area of formation evaluation in Kuwait. (Away from commercialization)
  • There will be a monthly technical presentation on a subject that is of a local interest to Kuwait formation evaluation Society. Ensuring knowledge transfer between local oil companies and service companies to better understand our reservoirs.
  • The monthly presentation will normally take place on third week Tuesday of each month. From September to May each year

Holding the April event in the University will enable students to

   February - 2009

Technical meeting # 5 (2008/2009)
Monday 23rd February 2009
Sponsor – Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR-PRSC)
Location – KISR- PRSC Auditorium


Dr. Reza P. Oskui, PRSC-KISR "SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR PREVENTION AND REMEDIATION OF ASPHALTENE PROBLEMS FOR KUWAITI RESERVOIRS"

We are pleased to announce that about 33 people attended the meeting of 23rd February 2009 organized by the Kuwait Chapter of the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) - dedicated to fostering interest in Petrophysical matters and encouraging the exchange of experience within our local Petrophysical community. We now have over 115 registered Members of the Kuwait Local Chapter of the SPWLA. Prior to the Talk, the speaker was introduced by the Secretary of the society.

Dr Oskui is Research Scientist working in Petroleum Research & Studies Center (PRSC) at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research( KISR) for the last 12 years. Since graduation from University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST-UK ) in 1985 in Chemical Engineering, he has been working with International oil and service companies in Phase Behaviour and PVT studies for reservoir fluids, IOR/EOR and gas injection projects in the USA and UK. His main interests in the oil industry are: Reservoir Characterization, routine and special core analysis, phase behaviour and PVT measurement and simulation studies for reservoir fluids, EOS modelling, CO2 and IOR gas injection processes, coreflooding and Asphaltene studies and Heavy oil. He has managed a number of gas injection IOR research projects during his working time in the oil industry.

The talk outlined Asphaltene precipitation and deposition from oil reservoir fluids during production and its consequences. The nature and behaviour of asphaltenes in crude oils was discussed. Local examples of Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) were presented and the discussion was on : asphaltene deposition problems in the wellbore, how this has caused a reduction in production, shutting of some of the wells and a severe detrimental effect on the economics of oil recovery.

The results of the laboratory studies on the characterization and phase behavior studies of three different crude oil samples from Marrat reservoirs were described. Also, results and finding of the screening study using a number of commercially available inhibitors was discussed. The presentation gathered a good interest from operating companies, resulting in long discussions and remedial action plans.

After the talk the members had Snacks where the discussion continued.


   January - 2009

Non-Resistivity Based Saturation Determination

Resistivity has always been the primary log evaluation technique for saturation determination. The limitations in fresh and variable water salinity environments and rocks with non-standard Archie parameters have been documented over the years. Alternate techniques have been used, but always suffer from relatively shallow depth of investigation and limitations imposed due to signal to noise and dynamic range.

Advanced in technology has resulted in techniques which while still shallow in nature, provide radial information to help better estimate saturation. We will discuss two recent publications. In SPWLA 2008 Akkurt etal presented "NMF Rabial Saturation Profiling for Delineating Oil-Water Contact in a High-Resistivity Low-Contrast Formation drilled with Oil-Based Mud." This technique utilizes advanced NMR radial saturation estimates based on diffusion measurements to estimate oil-water contacts in a challenging reservoir. Later in 2008 Hizem etal presented SPE 116130 "Dielectric Dispersion: A New Wireline Petrophysical Measurement" which demonstrated saturation determination by dielectric measurements. These technologies will be reviewed and examples presented from various reservoirs around the world.

Steve Crary is the Domain Champion in Saudi Arabia. He joined Schlumberger as a Field Engineer in Monahans Texas in 1975, after graduating from Purdue University with a degree in Physics. Beginning in 1980, he held various sales and management positions in Texas, Calgary Canada and New Orleans, Louisiana until August 1997 when he transferred to Schlumberger's Sugar Land Product Center as Petrophysical Expert for the Magnetic Resonance Department. He transferred to Moscow Russia in January of 2002 and Saudi Arabia in 2005. He has published many papers on different aspects of Formation Evaluation, and is a member of SPE, SPWLA, and SEG.


   December - 2008

Using whole-rock elemental data for chemostratigraphic correlation, improved geosteering, and enhanced formation evaluation

Rachad Zereik
Halliburton – Sperry Drilling Services
East Ahmadi, Kuwait


The elemental composition of sedimentary rocks is a rich and powerful data set that is only now being exploited to full advantage in the oil and gas industry. Historically, this type of data has not been widely used. Even advanced laboratory measurement techniques have long turnaround times and few geologists or organic geochemists are trained to interpret elemental data. While wireline geochemical tools have done well in pioneering the application of elemental data for formation evaluation since the late 1980s, they are inherently limited by the small number of elements they can measure, and by their inability to operate in the LWD environment, especially in horizontal wells.

With the introduction of portable Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technology in 2001, it became possible to greatly expand the utility of elemental data for drilling and formation evaluation. The LIBS spectrometer is a compact, robust surface instrument that can rapidly measure the elemental composition of cuttings at wellsite, allowing near real-time data generation to aid in drilling decisions. Innovative processing of LIBS optical spectra allow the acquisition of 15-25 elemental values in clean sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites, and up to 42 elements in shales and shaley lithologies. Cuttings-based elemental measurements also provide a significant advantage over LWD and wireline tools in HT/HP wells, as the LIBS spectrometer is unaffected by hostile downhole conditions.

Whole-rock elemental data has three primary uses in exploration and production programs:

  • Chemostratigraphic correlation. Laboratory-based studies can generate data for up to 55 elements, a large data set that allows the detailed geochemical fingerprinting of stratigraphic units for high-resolution correlations. It also provides a wealth of geological information on provenance, weathering, paleosol development, depositional redox conditions, maximum flooding surface development, diagenesis, and reservoir quality – all important inputs to better constrain conventional sequence stratigraphic models.
  • Improved wellbore positioning and geosteering (Chemosteering®). The results from laboratory chemostratigraphy studies can be immediately used to custom-calibrate LIBS instruments to recognize a zonation from cuttings analysis while drilling. This enables better-informed decisions for picking casing points, coring points, TD, and most importantly, for improved steering of horizontal wells.
  • Enhanced formation evaluation. Elemental data can be used to model mineralogy, lithology, TOC, immobile hydrocarbons ("tar mats"), reservoir quality, and other rock attributes if properly calibrated to core and log data. LIBS instruments can provide this data at wellsite while drilling.

Hundreds of chemostratigraphic studies have been completed on every continent except Antarctica, in strata ranging in age from latest Precambrian to Pliocene, and from virtually every depositional environment. LIBS technology has been successfully employed for a variety of wellbore positioning applications on 71 wells in nine countries, in siliciclastic and carbonate reservoirs.

In Kuwait, LIBS-based wellsite chemostratigraphy has been performed on nine wells in Minagish Field, in three different reservoir sequences (Minagish Oolite, Mishrif, and Burgan-Wara). A case study will be presented for the Minagish Oolite, illustrating the construction of a chemostratigraphic zonation and its application at wellsite using LIBS technology for borehole positioning and tar mat recognition.

Chemosteering® is a registered trademark of Halliburton.

Rachad M. Zereik

Rachad Zereik is Halliburton's Middle East Regional Product Champion for Geochemical Services. He obtained a B.S. in Geology from the University of Alexandria (Egypt) in 1980, and has 27 years of professional experience in the petroleum industry. Rachad has worked throughout the Middle East as a logging geologist and senior pressure engineer for Baroid Logging Systems and then Halliburton Sperry Drilling Services, gaining experience with a variety of reservoir types and a wide range of difficult drilling situations. He subsequently worked eight years as the coordinator of Halliburton's Surface Data Logging services in Saudi Arabia. In 2006 Rachad accepted the position of Regional Product Champion, and is now responsible for promoting and implementing the innovative LaserStrat® and POPI geochemical technologies in Middle East drilling operations. Rachad is an active member of AAPG since 1985 and of SPE since 2003.

   November - 2008

Elemental Yields to Minerals – An Expert System for Mineral Identification from Logs

Ulrich Herz, Staff Petrophysicist
Geoscience Manager Baker Atlas Kuwait
Abstract:
Mineralogy logs help to resolve ambiguities in the traditional logging methods and open up the possibility for obtaining new information to optimize hydrocarbon production. Knowledge of the formation matrix components can be used to provide a more accurate porosity through an enhanced interpretation of the neutron and density data. In general, the interpretation of any measurement can be enhanced when the formation matrix is understood. Modern logging has taken spectral analysis from the lab into the borehole. Current generation tools can detect more than the naturally occurring radioactive elements potassium, thorium, and uranium. Using chemical or pulsed neutron sources they also detect other elements associated with subsurface rock formations like calcium, silicon, magnesium, carbon, sulfur, aluminum, iron and others.

Elemental concentrations from subsurface nuclear spectroscopy, provide an opportunity to quantify the mineralogy of formation rocks using element to mineral transformation algorithms. Many of the methods utilized in the past have lead to non-unique solutions. Most difficulties evolved from underdetermined systems. With these difficulties in mind, a new system was developed which begins with a broad evaluation of the general lithology, followed by a more detailed assessment of the specific lithology, ultimately leading to a determination of the mineralogical content of the formation. The purpose of the middle step is to provide the opportunity to identify and place constraints on the subsequent mineral evaluation of the rock.

Biography:

Uli has 20 years of experience as geologist and petrophysicist.

At the moment, next to his responsibilities as supervisor, he performs petrophysical and NMR analysis. He also conducts processing and interpretations for horizontal well production logging and cased-hole pulsed neutron logging as well as acoustic and geomechanical processing.

The last years he was involved in similar tasks in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Prior to coming to the Middle East, he was working mainly on petrophysical field studies.

Before joining Baker Atlas, Uli spent several years for oil companies in Germany working as a geologist and later as a petrophysicist on projects in Germany, Holland, Libya, and countries of the former Soviet Union.

Uli holds a M.Sc. in Geology from the Gubkin Institute for Oil and Gas in Moscow (Russia, 1988). He is member of the SPWLA

   October - 2008

Get The Basic Fundamental Petrophysical Relationships Right And The Rest Is Easy

William T. Bryant
Kuwait Oil Company

Abstract:
This presentation demonstrates how the basic data shared by the different disciplines, porosity, water saturation, permeability, and net to gross, are interrelated. Data needs are different. What porosity is needed by reservoir modelers? Not all porosity is the same. Cross-plot porosity, different types of total porosity and effective porosity values are available and then there is oven dried core porosity and humidity dried core porosity and others to compare with. All are all valid forms of porosity, each with their own definition, and each has a different numerical value. The water saturation in terms of total porosity is different numerically than the water saturation for effective porosity. Oven dried porosity has its unique associated water saturation and humidity dried porosity has a different one.

Core based integration of data provides a framework for valid reservoir properties; oil in place, reserves, and data for models. The process of integrating core and logs to yield meaningful reservoir properties is known, but is not often used. Measurements of core data at surface conditions must be adjusted through valid confining stress relationships to the reservoir conditions at the time of logging to properly compare with log measured values. The selection of core plug depths is also critical for valid comparisons. After core calibration, log data can be further adjusted to past or future stress conditions; initial reservoir pressure through to reservoir abandonment pressure.

Often the largest errors associated with oil in place and reserves (more than 50%) are caused by ignoring the fundamental relationships between log and core. Rigorous interpretation procedures often yield invalid porosities because fundamentals are ignored. Often the porosity does not match the water saturation which in turn yields invalid permeability results which in turn makes invalid reservoir models.


Biography:

William Bryant , Senior Petrophysical Advisor for Kuwait Oil Company KOC, is presently working for North Kuwait Field Development NKFD. He has been working in the oil industry for over 37 years for Schlumberger, Amoco, BP, Petrophysical Technologies, and now KOC. He was the petrophysical coordinator of the Amoco Research Center, senior instructor for NeXT Training and is an adjunct professor for Tulsa University. William holds a BS degree in Engineering Science from Florida State University. He authored and co-authored numerous papers and served in many SPWLA committees, including past President of the SPWLA chapter in Tulsa, Oklahoma.