SPWLA Kuwait 2010/2011

   June 2011



Presenter: Dr. Vivek Chitale
Specialist Petrophysicist, KOC




First this seminar will discuss and answer two basic questions: "why use anything but triple combo or conventional logs" when evaluating the carbonate reservoirs? "Does the E&P risk reduce for carbonate reservoirs by using advanced technologies"?


The seminar material has been derived from the work presented by the author at regional and global forums such SPWLA, SPE and AAPG. Some of the material has been drawn from the one day workshop on "carbonate petrophysics" presented by the author and other petrophysicists at the 2006 Convention of the SPWLA in Mexico.


Experience has shown that the complex internal fabric of the carbonate reservoirs all over the world makes it impossible for the users to interpret the commonly used logs to meaningfully and adequately characterize such reservoirs for the purpose of accurately defining permeable versus impermeable layers. At times even the pay identification in specific layers within the carbonates is at risk if no advanced technologies such as borehole imaging and NMR are used. This applies to the carbonates that are naturally fractured as also those that have storage and produce ability from matrix.

Successful management of carbonate reservoirs requires clear identification and description of changes in facies, porosity and permeability. This presentation describes a much advanced interpretation technique that integrates NMR and quad combo logs together with the borehole images to evaluate the pore space in the carbonate reservoirs. Total porosity and the porosity fractions are used together with the definition of rock types to estimate permeability in accordance with the Jennings-Lucia model (Jennings and Lucia, 2003). Rock types are obtained either from core analysis or the new technique estimates them by combining PE with other logs.


Example from Permian Basin USA shows advantages of evaluating the productive facies of carbonate reservoirs in the manner described above include diagnosing streaks of high permeability or the permeability barriers, and the ability afforded to the geologist or petrophysicist to find the exact correlation between the depositional facies versus oil and gas flow units. Pitfalls are possible when interpreting image logs based on acoustic technologies by themselves. Example from Permian Basin demonstrates the risks involved.



Dr. Vivek Chitale, Specialist Petrophysicist at KOC is a petroleum geologist-turned-petrophysicist with 22 years of E&P experience. He has published and presented numerous articles dealing with various aspects of "subsurface reservoir description" at the global, regional and local forums of SPWLA, AAPG and SPE. Vivek specializes in the reservoir description of diverse varieties of shales, sandstones and carbonates from so many different basins of the world. In his oil industry E&P career so far he has worked as a geologist as well as a petrophysicist on numerous challenging projects in India, USA, Indonesia, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and during the last six months on the Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs of Kuwait. Vivek's job history so far includes Senior Geologist, Oil India Ltd; Manager Formation Evaluation, Halliburton India; Chief Geologist Enron Oil & Gas India Ltd; Principal Petrophysicist, Halliburton, Houston; Global Product Champion, Halliburton Hosuton; Global Business Manager, reservoir Evaluation, Halliburton, Houston; and Specialist Petrophysicist, KOC, Kuwait.

Vivek is currently serving as a member of the SPWLA Technology Committee. He recently served as Distinguished Speaker for SPWLA on topics covering both shaly sand evaluation and carbonate petrophsycis. At the 2006 Convention of SPWLA at Vera Cruz Mexico, Vivek conducted a carbonate field trip and followed it up with a one day short course on carbonate petrophsycis. Previously (2000-2003) Dr Chitale also served as Chairman, Formation Evaluation Technical Interest Group of the SPE.


Vivek obtained his Ph. D. in geology from Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas and M.S. from the University of Poona, India.


   May 2011

Application of Tracer in IOR


Presenter: Dr. Mahmoud Asadi
International Technology Manager, ProTechnics (a Division of Core Laboratories)




Secondary recovery is a process in which reservoir fluid is mobilized and moved from an
injection well toward a production well. The success of this process greatly depends on the knowledge of reservoir continuity and uniformity, in terms of fluid transmissibility, and how much of the reservoir fluid volume can be contacted by the injection fluid. In any water/gas flood injection project, fluid channeling through mini-fractures, faults, and high permeability streaks results in problems such as poor reservoir sweep efficiency and low hydrocarbon recovery. Therefore, knowledge of direct communication between the injection and production wells as well as an understanding of formation heterogeneity can be of great help to overcome these problems. Tracer survey is an available method that provides valuable information on direct communication, flow-path, and formation heterogeneity across the injection and production wells. This presentation includes detailed review of chemical tracer application in IOR with supportive case histories from various water/gas-flood fields.




Dr. Mahmoud Asadi: Is the International Technology Manager at Pro Technics a Division of Core Laboratories. Mahmoud has been involved in the application of tracer in EOR over last 10 years were he applied the technology to various fields globally. Prior to that, he was R&D Supervisor with Stim Lab conducting research in the areas of hydraulic fracturing fluid characterizations, fracturing fluid flowback evaluations, and perforation. He holds a B.S. and an M.S. from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and a Ph.D. from the University of Kansas all in Petroleum Engineering. He completed his post-doctoral fellow at the University of Oklahoma conducting research in the area of proppant transport in hydraulic fracturing. Mahmoud is currently serving on the SPE Editorial Review Committee and is a member of the SPE program committees of International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control and the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. He is chairman of the completion fluids committees with API and ISO. He is a registered professional engineer in the State of Texas.


   April 2011

Solution to Well Placement and Well Completion Challenges in Fields with Variable Salinity due to Water Injection

Moustafa E. Oraby, Ph.D.

Halliburton Energy Services

In many fields in the Middle East as well as globally, water injection is used for enhancing fields' production through marinating field pressure and enhancing fluids recovery. Despite the importance of such operation, it may result in many challenges not only in field evaluation but also in placing the developing wells. This is because the injected water in many of these fields varies in its salinity from the original formation water salinity. This variation in salinity combined with the variation of rock properties in porosity and permeability result in variations in the current formation water salinity. In many fields, the current formation water salinity varies tremendously within few feet.

The above practice generated a huge challenge in well placement since injecting fresher water than the original connate water will lead to increasing the measured resistivity. This increase in resistivity may result in miss-interpretation of the zone as hydrocarbon zone rather than fresher water zone. This will lead to misplacement of wells and creates problems in well completion.

A new technology is developed to overcome such challenge by measuring the salt concentration on foot by foot basis. This tool differentiates the higher resistivity zones of being real hydrocarbon zones or they are zones swept by fresher water. Example from the prototype tool run in the Middle Easy will be discussed.


Moustafa E. Oraby, Ph.D.

Halliburton Energy Services

Dr. Moustafa Oraby is the Global Geo-Science Manager for Halliburton. He holds a Ph.D. from North Carolina State University, USA, in formation evaluation. His Undergraduate and Master degrees are from Alexandria University in Egypt.

He worked for both operating and service companies throughout his career. He joined ARCO Exploration and production Technology based in Dallas, USA, where he worked for many fields in North America specially Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay.

When he joined Halliburton, he started in Houston, USA, where he was leading all the developments of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technology. He then moved to the Middle holding different positions between technology and operation.

Dr. Oraby holds nine USA patents all in formation evaluation. He served as distinguished speaker for SPWLA and currently serving as Formation Evaluation Technical Editor for the SPE.


Logging While Drilling (LWD) and Wire line (WL) borehole imaging technology


Presenter: Derick Zurcher

Geoscience Manager, Baker Hughes Inc.


Logging While Drilling (LWD) and Wire line (WL) borehole imaging technology development has in recent years led to a number of exciting new application areas. This presentation will cover borehole imaging concepts as related to both vertical and horizontal logging, including the real-time domain. Each LWD and WL imaging technology is briefly reviewed in terms of its acquisition principles, logging operations, fundamental quality control aspects, through benefits and limitations. Examples of well-established structural and sedimentological imaging applications will be demonstrated, along with usage in the areas gaining significant interest; namely reservoir navigation (geosteering), Geomechanics and completions. The next-generation applications such as sedimentary steering and geomechamical steering will be discussed, including suggestions on where the reservoir characterization workflow and model can potentially be improved with information derived from borehole images.


A Petroleum Geologist with 15 years industry experience, Derick Zurcher began his career as a field engineer. His main expertise is in LWD formation evaluation, in particular borehole imaging; from acquisition through QC, processing and interpretation. He has significant experience with training clients and internally on LWD and Wireline borehole imaging, software and applications, with a focus on real-time applications including geosteering and wellbore integrity. Derick takes a leading role on company steering committees in new technology development, field testing, marketing and product commercialization. He authored the Baker Hughes LWD Imaging manual, developed QC methods, and is instrumental in driving imaging software development. Derick has a MSc (eq) degree in Petroleum Geology from the NCPGG, Adelaide, and is completing an Executive MBA at London Business School. Currently he manages the Baker Hughes Geoscience team in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

   March 2011

Role of Geomechanics in appraisal of a deep tight gas reservoir: A case history from the Amin formation in the Sultanate of Oman.

Satya Perumalla,Baker Hughes / GeoMechanics International.
Appraisal of deep tight gas reservoirs offers many challenges, including production ratepredictions when wells are drilled overbalanced. Overbalance leads to near wellbore porosity / permeability damage to the rock matrix and fractures. Furthermore, poro-elastic effects due to invasion contribute to difficulties initiating and propagating hydraulic fractures. Damage to natural fractures intersecting the well can prevent their detection leading to missed productive intervals.

Alternatively,under-balanced drilling (UBD) can avoid these effects and thereby better indicate the gas potential of these reservoirs. However, not all reservoirs are suitable for UBD as there can be a greater risk of mechanical wellbore instability. Hence, geomechanical analysis prior to drilling can help evaluate the feasibility of UBD operations.

Formation evaluation in UBD conditions also poses many challenges due to technical (temperature and pressure) limitations of tools and higher uncertainties with petrophysical calculations. Conventional core to log and porosity/permeability relationships are often inappropriate where matrix permeability is extremely low and fractures contribute to flow, therefore alternative ways of understanding and evaluating the reservoir are essential.

In this paper, we demonstrate how geomechanics was used in formulating a strategy for appraisal of a well placed in a tight gas reservoir and also as a decision support tool while drilling.

Planning of this Amin reservoir well involved geomechanical analysis prior to well spud to evaluate UBD feasibility based on offset well data, followed by updating the models as the well progressed.

Evaluation of natural fractures from image logs and identifying sets of critically-stressed fractures (hydraulically-conductive fractures) was an important component of the geomechanical analysis that played a key role in supporting the appraisal strategy. As detection of natural fractures is extremely difficult in acoustic image logs, this paper discusses an innovative approach used to identify natural fractures based on rotation of stress induced borehole breakouts and their correlation to real time gas flow.


Mr. Satya Perumalla, SrGeomechanics Specialist: Satya Perumalla is working in Oil & Gas Industry as a Drilling & Geology Consultant over 15 years at different levels, supportingWell-Engineering & Geoscience interests of various operators in the Middle East, Africa and India. He is associated with Baker Hughes / GMI in Dubai since 2007 and he worked on various consulting projects linking geomechanics to wellbore stability, pore-pressure and production related reservoir changes. Mr.Perumalla also authored SPE technical papers and delivered society speeches with topics related to geomechanics. He received M.Sc (Applied Geology) degree from Indian Institute of Technology- Roorkee, India in 1994 and General Management Diploma from Indian Institute of Mangement- Ahmedabad, Indiain 2010. Mr.Perumalla is a member of AAPG, SPE, SEG and local SPWLA chapters.

   February 2011

Presentation to the SPWLA Kuwait Section
Kuwait City, Kuwait
February 15, 2011


The characterization of carbonate reservoirs is a complex subject. Over the years there has been ongoing study to develop a number of different techniques and approaches, which are now available in the oil industry. This presentation will cover carbonate reservoir characterization methods with an emphasis on the use of bore hole image data.

In order to derive a much better idea of reservoir volumetrics, reservoir information such as porosity, its distribution, and textural information, can be obtained using a method called Image Petrophysics. In Carbonates, secondary porosity (a key element in well productivity) can be identified from the image, in the near well bore region. Image derived porosity distribution calibrated with either core data or open-hole log data can be obtained without losing the high resolution character of the image resulting in a high resolution petrophysical answer.

A typical image petrophysics workflow starts with estimating porosity and Vclay from the image and the standard open hole logs, followed by grain size, sorting and permeability distributions from the Kozeny-Carman and Coates-Timur relationships. Based on these image derived results, lithofacies can be defined using a neural network approach which becomes a useful tool for reservoir description.

The presentation includes discussion of a case study and outlines the workflow.

Presenter: Robert Kuchinski

Robert. Kuchinski is the Weatherford Wireline Business Development Manager for the Middle East - North Africa region. He has been involved in the acquisition of subsurface data since 1976. During this period he has worked as a geologist in both the mining and petroleum businesses in western Canada. In 1986 he joined Reeves Wireline where he worked in various roles including technical sales, sales management, and Senior Vice President. He played a key role in the development of the Compact technology which was acquired by Weatherford in 2005. Robert is a registered professional geologist in the province of Alberta, Canada. He has been located in Dubai for the past 4 years in his current role.

   January 2011

Single-well in-situ measurement of residual oil saturation after an EOR Chemical Flood

Raghu Ramamoorthy


Schlumberger Regional Technology Center – Abu Dhabi

The Micro Pilot* is a log-inject-log technique providing a single-well in-situ measurement of enhanced oil recovery flood geometry and changed residual oil saturation. The fluid to be injected is transported down hole in a sample chamber and injected into the formation through a pencil sized hole. Borehole electric images and high resolution saturation logs are recorded before and after fluid injection. The logs show the change of residual oil saturation. The dimensions of the swept zone and surrounding oil bank are visible on the borehole image. These dimensions and saturations can be used to history match the reservoir simulation of the EOR process.

In this talk we will present results from the first Micro Pilot* operation in a heavy oil reservoir in the Middle East where we carried out an Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flood. We will present the pre-job investigations and consequent planning of the job operations. This will be followed by the results from the job along with post-job interpretation of the same. We conclude with the value perception by the customer.

Who should attend this talk:

Petro physicists – particularly those involved in EOR screening and implementation
Reservoir Engineers
Core Analysis Experts – particularly those involved in EOR SCAL

About the Speaker:

Raghu Ramamoorthy is currently the Petrophysics Advisor for the Schlumberger Regional Technology Center in Abu Dhabi. This center focuses on carbonates and EOR. He is also the recipient of the 2010 SPE Regional Award for contributions to Petroleum Engineering in the area of Formation Evaluation for the Middle East, North Africa, India region. Raghu joined Schlumberger in 1982 and served as a wire line logging engineer, and later as a log analyst in the Middle East. Raghu received his MS in Petroleum Engineering at the University of Texas, Austin in May 1994. He then spent an extended stint as Research Scientist (Petrophysicist) at Schlumberger-Doll Research in Ridgefield, CT, USA, where he worked on reservoir characterization and carbonate Petrophysics. In 1997 he returned to the field and served as Principal Petrophysicist in Australasia, East Asia, and Saudi Arabia.

   December 2010

Systematic Approach for Prevention and Remediation of Asphaltene problems for Kuwaiti Reservoirs

By: Dr. Reza P Oskui
Asphaltene precipitation and deposition from oil reservoir fluids during production are serious problems for the oil industry, as it can cause plugging of reservoir formation, wellbore, tubing and production facilities. In this presentation the nature and behavior of asphaltenes in crude oils will be discussed. Asphaltene precipitation during primary depletion of highly under saturated reservoirs due to the changes in pressure, temperature and compositions or during application of any of the improved oil recovery (IOR) processes will be presented.

Currently Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is facing asphaltene deposition problems in the wellbore of some of the Marrat Jurassic reservoirs in West Kuwait (WK) and South East Kuwait (SEK). This has caused a reduction in production and shutting of some of the wells and a severe detrimental effect on the economics of oil recovery. In this presentation the results of the laboratory studies on the characterization and phase behavior studies of three different crude oil samples from Marrat reservoirs will be described. The results and finding of screening study using a number of commercially available inhibitors which were proposed as a remedy and prevention of asphaltene deposition for this reservoir will be presented.


Dr Oskui is Research Scientist working in Petroleum Research & Studies Center (PRSC) at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research( KISR) for the last 12 years. Since graduation from University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST-UK ) in 1985 in Chemical Engineering, he has been working with International oil and service companies in Phase Behaviour and PVT studies for reservoir fluids, IOR/EOR and gas injection projects in the USA and UK.

His main interests in the oil industry are: Reservoir Characterization, routine and special core analysis, phase behaviour and PVT measurement and simulation studies for reservoir fluids, EOS modelling, CO2 and IOR gas injection processes, coreflooding and Asphaltene studies and Heavy oil. He has managed a number of gas injection IOR research projects during his working time in the oil industry.