SPWLA Kuwait 2013/2014

    June , 2014

When Geomechanics met Drilling and Completion

 

Presenter: Mr. Surej Kumar Subbiah

Middle East Geomechanics Lead

Schlumberger
Abstract:

The presentation will be focus on Geomechanics application for Drilling Optimization (both mechanical and chemical) and later to improve completion design (hydraulic frac). The new technology used for Geomechanics modelling will be discussed. 


 

Author's Biography: Mr. Surej Kumar Subbiah

Mr. Surej Kumar Subbiah The presentation will be given by Surej Kumar Subbiah who is the Middle East Geomechanics Lead and working for Schlumberger. He is currently based in Abu Dhabi. Surej holds both a Bachelor's and a Master's degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Technology Malaysia, with specialization in Geomechanics. He has 20 years' experience in Geomechanics and started his career as a Research Associate later becomes a Lecturer. He Joined Schlumberger in 1999. Involved in numerous Geomechanics related consultancy projects in Asia, Europe Middle East and covered wide variety type applications from exploration phase to enhanced oil recovery. Authored over 20 papers, numerous presentation and conducted short course on Geomechanics, Technical reviewer for SPE Drilling and Completion Journal, and SEG Netherlands Chapter.

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    May , 2014

Sourceless Porosity and Permeability Estimation with NMR Logs While Drilling in a Carbonate Reservoir: A Case Study

 

Presenter: Mr. Ahmet Aki

Regional Technical Sales & Marketing Manager (Middle East and North Africa)

Halliburton Sperry Drilling
Abstract:

Sourceless porosity estimation has become more attractive because of evolving government regulatory and HSE requirements. The use of wireline nuclear sensors and their HSE 0procedures have a 50-year history, while nuclear sensors for logging while drilling share the last 20 of those years.

Recently, the potential of using non-nuclear methods for porosity estimation has been explored in an offshore Abu Dhabi carbonate sequence. This talk presents a case study of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs while drilling, in comparison to conventional density and neutron logs using radioactive chemical sources. NMR T1 porosities were also compared to laboratory core results. Two approaches are investigated:

  • Estimated hydrogen-index correction to NMR moveable-fluid volume using core-normalized porosities.
  • An insight into an integrated NMR-acoustic approach, using the two sensor measurements to derive a corrected porosity.

 

A workflow is proposed for optimized job planning, operational procedures, data-acquisition parameters, and interpretation techniques. Permeability estimation with NMR is discussed, and a selection of methods are considered and contrasted to laboratory core permeability and wireline formation-tester results. The potential for sourceless porosity measurements through NMR and acoustic/NMR measurements are also investigated, in light of the growing interest for sourceless porosity options.

Author's Biography: Mr. Ahmet Aki

Ahmet Aki is Regional Technical Sales & Marketing Manager with Halliburton Sperry Drilling for Middle East and North Africa.

Mr. Aki has obtained his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from University of Birmingham in the UK in 1981. He has worked for Schlumberger and Halliburton in field operations and management positions in West and North Africa, North America, North Sea and the Middle East, prior to moving into log analysis in 1994.

Mr. Aki has worked in technical and petrophysical consulting positions for both LWD and Wireline in the Middle East since 1996 and has extensive experience on products, services and interpretation techniques in petrophysical and geosteering applications with various technical publications.

Mr. Aki has been a member of SPWLA and SPE since 1986, currently serving on the board of SPWLA Abu Dhabi Chapter.

 

    April , 2014

2D NMR tools

 

Presenter: Mr. Gavin Baldwin

Advisor, Technical Sales

Paradigm


Abstract:

The older crop of 1D NMR tools often struggled to differentiate fluid types within a given formation. A process of inversion transformed the raw echo-decay signals into a T2 distribution or distribution of transverse relaxation times. Although this distribution is directly related to pore geometry and fluid type, differentiating and quantifying the various phases can prove difficult due to overlapping signals.
Developments in acquisition technology have seen a new breed of NMR tools emerge. These newer tools aim to overcome some of the limitations of the 1D tools by incorporating a second dimension in the form of T1 relaxation or polarization build-up or in the form of fluid diffusion effects. The cross-plotting of either of these against T2 more easily allows discrimination of different fluid types including water, oil and gas as well as free water and bound water


This discussion will explore the newer 2D NMR tools, along with some of the techniques used to process and interpret the data.

 

Author's Biography: Mr. Gavin Baldwin

Gavin has over twenty years' experience in the oil industry working for a number of different software and service companies. He has experience living and working in the UK, Middle East and Former Soviet Union and has spent the last 13 years working in the technical sales division for Paradigm.

 

    April , 2014

Reservoir Rock Types Enhanced by Imaging Techniques

 

Presenter: Mr. Moustafa R. Dernaika

Manager

Ingrain


Abstract:

Carbonate rocks are complex in their structures and pore geometries and often exhibit a real challenge in their classification and behavior. Heterogeneity is a key issue in carbonates and the main challenge lies in defining the rock types at different scales.

A new workflow is proposed for determining carbonate rock types at multi-scales: Thin-sections are used to define the structure of the rock together with its pore types. The structure is categorized into three distinct classes (grainy, muddy or mixed). The pore types can take different forms such as inter-particle, inter-crystalline, intra-particle, moldic or vuggy. This forms the basis of the rock types at the micro-scale. This (micro) rock typing scheme is then upscaled to the plug level by incorporating mercury injection data (PTSD and Pc) and PoroPerm. High resolution plug CT is essential to confirm the (Macro) rock types and to explain the heterogeneity effects.

This rock typing scheme at multi-scales can improve the understanding of the rock types and provide more insights into the effect of heterogeneity on petrophysical properties and fluid flow behavior. Examples from several fields in the Middle East will be demonstrated.

 

Author's Biography: Mr. Moustafa R. Dernaika


Moustafa R. Dernaika has been the Manager of Ingrain Abu Dhabi since 2010. Before he joined Ingrain he worked for Emirates Link ResLab (Weatherford Laboratories) as the Regional SCAL Manager in Abu Dhabi.

Moustafa holds BS and MS degrees in Chemical Engineering from the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, and PhD degree in Petroleum Reservoir Engineering from University of Stavanger in Norway.

Moustafa has 13 years experience in the oil industry and has co-authored 22 technical papers and 5 journals. Moustafa's current research areas include Digital Rock Physics, Dual Energy CT applications and the variations of petrophysical and flow properties with wettability and rock types.

 

    March , 2014

Choosing the Right Sonic Service

 

Presenter: Ms. Jennifer Market

Borehole Acoustic Advisor

Abstract:

Borehole sonic data are acquired for a myriad of uses, including pore pressure prediction, porosity, seismic correlation, wellbore stability, hole size determination, fracture characterization, permeability, cement bond analysis and more.  One of the difficulties in the well planning stage is determining the best sonic tool/service for the purpose.  The “fanciest” service is not always the best option for every environment and application. 

This presentation will review a variety of applications and environments, such as the acquisition of compressional data in large shallow wells for accurate pore pressure prediction, obtaining good quality shear data in slow and fast formations, and logging azimuthal shear velocities for production enhancement in unconventional wells.  Recommendations will be suggested for optimal and cost-effective sonic logging programmes.  LWD and wireline options will be considered as well as a variety of types of hardware.  As this is a non-partisan presentation, no trade names or specific services will be referenced, but rather generic terms such as “wireline crossed-dipole” or “LWD unipole” will be used.   Particular configurations, such as optimal source-receiver spacing, azimuthal capabilities, or transmitter frequency ranges will also be suggested, but again in a generic sense.

While it is natural to focus attention on hardware configuration and signal quality, it is equally important to consider service delivery factors such as reliability of hardware, telemetry speed, waveform processing quality and data delivery.  We will consider a variety of scenarios and applications, considering how to weigh these service quality and delivery factors in each instance.  For example, if the primary application of sonic data for a well is real-time pore pressure prediction, then telemetry rates, automated processing quality, and data monitoring are critical, but whether the hardware is capable of acquiring high resolution azimuthal data or very slow shear may not be as essential.  On the other hand, if the primary application is fracture characterization in a reservoir, perhaps the azimuthal shear data quality is paramount while the turn-around time for processing the data may be less important.

 

Author's Biography: Ms. Jennifer Market

Jennifer Market is the borehole acoustics advisor for Weatherford. She has 15+years' experience in borehole acoustics, working in service companies to develop acoustics tools and applications and in a consulting/software company to deliver high quality acoustics and Petrophysics and answer products. She frequently publishes articles for both SPWLA and SPE and was an SPWLA distinguished lecturer in 2008-2009 and 2011-2012.

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    March 2014

Fracture Characterization Using Triaxial Induction Tools

Presented at:  2013 SPWLA 54th Annual Logging Symposium


Peter Wu, Tom Barber, Gong Li Wang, Charlie Johnson, Denis Heliot, Ron Hayden, Anish Kumar, Weixin Xu (Schlumberger)


Hanming Wang, Simon Clinch, Christopher L. Schmidt (Chevron)

 

Presenter: Dr. Peter Wu

Scientific Advisor, Formation Evaluation Center, Houston
Schlumberger
Abstract:

Triaxial induction tools were initially designed to measure anisotropic resistivity and the dip of formations. Recently, working with the geological community, we applied the high-resolution Zero-D inversion to provide excellent structural dip information. These applications involved mathematical inversions of the data. In this paper, we will describe a new application using triaxial induction tool's measurements for fracture characterization. We have developed a workflow using the 3×3 apparent conductivity tensor measurements directly to detect the existence of fractures and estimate the fracture orientation.


Extensive modeling has demonstrated that we can robustly detect a very important subclass of near-vertical fractures. Significant resistivity contrast between the fractures and the background formation is required for robust detection. Guided by modeling results, two indicators Vertical Fracture Indicator (VFIND) and Fracture Orientation Indicator (FOI) are derived from the triaxial induction measurement tensor. The VFIND is a qualitative indicator indicating the existence of near-vertical fractures. The FOI is the estimated fracture strike in the fracture zones delineated by VFIND. The VFIND has an important application in unconventional shales to identify zones of high fracture permeability for effective completion design. 


For resistive fractures, such as open fractures filled with oil-based mud or healed fractures filled with high-resistivity cementing material, the VFIND is relatively independent of the fracture aperture. A 0.01-inch-aperture fracture has almost the same response as 1-inch-aperture fracture. However, for conductive fractures, the VFIND is sensitive to fracture aperture. Over zones containing multiple conductive fractures, by using VFIND we can invert for an effective fracture aperture through a simple model to represent the fracture systems near the wellbore. The depth of investigation of the triaxial induction measurements is very deep and therefore VFIND preferentially responds to large-extent fractures, including those that do not intersect the borehole. For deep drilling-induced fractures, we can deduce the far-field maximum horizontal stress direction from the FOI. The far-field maximum horizontal stress direction is important for planning hydraulic fracturing programs in designing optimal drainage of the reservoir.


Modeling results and field examples will be presented to demonstrate the principle of the fracture characterization workflow. Field examples show a high correlation between the VFIND-indicated fracture zones and the locations of fractures identified from borehole microresistivity images. The FOI over the fracture zones also matches well with fracture orientation from the borehole images. Shown in Figure 1 is an example of VFIND and FOI (Track 5) together with the borehole image (Track 3) and handpicked fracture dips from the image (Track 4). 

Fig. 1 Example of VFIND and FOI (Track 5) for fracture characterization in a south Texas well.

 

Author's Biography: Dr. Peter Wu

Peter Wu joined Schlumberger in 1980. He graduated from Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. with a Ph. D. in Physics. His expertise is in acoustic and induction logging areas. He had been developing tools and processing algorithms for wireline long spacing sonic, dipole sonic, triaxial induction, LWD propagation resistivity, and quadruple sonic tools. He is currently a Scientific Advisor in Houston Formation Evaluation Center working on developing Electromagnetic LWD logging tool and answer products for triaxial induction tool.

 

   February 2014

Integrated Study Leading to Discovery of Thin Sands and Challenges Associated with Development

 

Presenter:Mr. Shaikh Abdul Azim
TPL Specialist (Geology)

Kuwait Oil Company

ABSTRACT

 

Aggressive exploration and delineation activities in Zubair and Ratawi Formations of Kuwait have led to discovery of hydrocarbons in fault controlled anticlines and stratigraphic pinchouts. A detailed study of the Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy and structural history followed by targeted drilling have established the complexity of fluid distribution and trapping mechanism. The subtle thin pays thus identified were planned to be developed with vertical wells in first phase and horizontal maximum reservoir contact (MRC) wells in second phase. The Zubair Formation consists of arenaceous clastics of high to transgressive systems tracts in an intensely faulted anticline. An integrated method of fault mapping from seismic signatures including coherency, amplitude and frequency volumes tied to well and production data from shallow reservoirs yielded three categories of faults for target identification: Significant, obvious but smaller and minor or indeterminate faults. Definition and mapping of quality of oil with respect to fault seal was used to identify locales of migrated oil and sweet spots of trapped oil. Trapping mechanism was identified to be genetically and tectonically controlled: migration/leaking of oil from the high stand reservoirs up-structure and along fault conduits in the channel sand sections abetted by insufficient clay smearing to form local seals. In transgressive system tracts, the thinner sands have sufficient seals to prevent oil leakage. Comparative study of trapping mechanism with dominantly oil bearing equivalent systems of adjacent field was used to construct the fault related oil leaking pattern. Localized pressure differentials were used to locate fault traps and huge reserves were added in the process. In Upper clastic unit of Ratawi Formation, oil trapping in sands is controlled by stratigraphy and lithology: Porous shoreface sands are oil bearing in three strata bound layers in areas of distinct paleogeography. Northern part is devoid of oil due to intense cementation and gradation of clastics to carbonates. The abnormally pressured Limestone member is a ramp carbonate with intense cementation towards the base: Lesser connected vuggy pores in upper part contain heavier/biodegraded oil from early charge which was followed a lighter fraction later. Developing such thin sands in a leaking fault regime imposes big risk and challenge. Two phase development program was adopted. In first phase 13 vertical were drilled and put on regular production. In the second phase, areas of 3 to 7 ft pays were developed with MRC wells. The first MRC well has a 2130ft lateral section in a 6 ft sand with a production rate of more than 3500 BOPD. The well presents technological achievements of geosteering in such a thin sand. Success of the well opened up huge area in North of Sabiriyah Field for development. Two more wells have been geo-steered in 3 to 5 ft thick sands. Main challenges during completion have been exposure of coal in target section. Production from less than 6 ft thin sands with this novel technique is a trend setter for developing several such zones in many reservoirs of Kuwait.

 

BIOGRAPHY: Mr. Shaikh Abdul Azim

Shaikh Abdul Azim is a Specialist (Geology) with the Reservoir Studies Team, FD (NK). He received an MS degree in Geology and Petroleum Exploration from the Indian School of Mines in 1984. He has 27 years experience in Development Geology and Geo-cellular modeling. His assignments in KOC include reservoir description, delineation and development of Lower Burgan, Mauddud, Upper Burgan, Tuba and Zubair reservoirs in Raudhatain and Sabiriyah fields integrating geological, petrophysical, geophysical and engineering data. Azim has built 3-D static models for Lower Burgan, Middle Burgan, Upper Burgan and Zubair clastic reservoirs and the Mauddud carbonate reservoir. Currently he is technical in-charge of Zubair/Ratwai Reservoir.